UNCDF/BTCA contracted BFA Global from February to September 2019 to conduct diagnostics of the payments systems and incentives for digital payments in Ghana and Vietnam. The deliverables for this project were reports detailing the value and volume of digital and paper-based payments, trajectories for shifting to digital payments, key barriers and ecosystem gaps, and prioritized use cases. We also evaluated and quantified the costs and benefits of shifting to digital to deepen the evidence available to payment systems stakeholders for their own payment strategy decisions. Lastly, BFA Global supported efforts to disseminate study results.